Apr 30, 2010

National Humor Month

Hope you enjoyed National Humor Month this month. It was launched in 1976 by humorist Larry Wilde, Director of the Carmel Institute of Humor. He says, "Since April is often bleak and grim and taxes are due on the 15th, it can be one of the most stressful times of the year. Besides, it's the only month that begins with All Fool's Day - a day which has sanctioned frivolity and pranks ever since the 1500s." That reminds me of a joke. . .

Interesting Facts About Your Feet

Did you know that you will walk more than 100,000 miles in your lifetime?

Over 80% of Americans suffer from foot pain.

Medieval Europeans believed that wearing pointy-toed shoes would make witches helpless.

High heels were first introduced in the 16th century by Queen Catherine de Medici of France.

In the same century, Italian women began wearing very strange-looking, two-foot high platform shoes called “chopines”. They were originally designed to keep women 'on a pedestal', so to speak. The shoes were banned because they presented the danger of miscarriage to pregnant women who fell from the that height.

About 60% of the body’s weight is supported by the balls of the feet, not the heels.

The foot measurement began in ancient times was based on the length of the human foot.

By the Middle Ages, the foot as defined by different European countries ranged from 10 to 20 inches.

In 1305, England set the foot equal to 12 inches. (The measurement we still use today)

In animals that walk on all four legs, the ends of the front and hind feet are much the same.

The human foot has 26 bones. There are three sets of bones: the ankle bones (tarsals), instep bones (metatarsals), and toe bones (phalanges).

Bones in the feet are not completely formed until a person is about 20 years old.

The foot has as many muscles as the hand, but the foot’s structure allows less flexibility and freedom of movement than the hand.

Swollen ankles can be a sign of congestive heart failure.

Feet that are insensitive to pain and temperature can be a sign of diabetes.

Cold feet may signify circulatory disease.

Interesting India Fact

India has more cell phones than toilets. About 545 million Indians have cell phones, but only 366 million have access to toilets.

Google Truth

You have probably heard that the Library of Congress is to archive every single public tweet ever made. There are about 55 million tweets sent every day.

Google also revealed how it is going to make the Twitter archive searchable for users. Google unveiled a replay feature that lets users search tweets posted at any given point in time right down to the minute.

Anyone wanting to know what people tweeted about on say the Haiti earthquake or the Oscars can type into the Google search box, select "show options" on the result page and then click "updates". A timeline will appear above the results allowing you to zoom in on tweets by the hour or minute.

Google says, "We think this is pretty significant because up until now the discussion has been about what is happening now and with today's replay button people will be able to go back and see what people were actually talking about around big events."

Currently the replay feature will only cover the last two months of tweets. Google said later this year it hopes to cover the entire archive all the way back to March 2006.

Chuck Norris

OK, I have a weird sense of humor, but this one tickles me. I actually bumped into him a few weeks ago at the local watering hole. He is taller than I expected.

Shaving is Sexy

According to a recent Schick national research poll, men who shave regularly (5 times a week or more) have twice as much sex (15.5 vs. 7.8 times per month). They're also happier (89% vs. 82%), and more likely to report they are living their dreams (76% vs. 64%). (Of course Chuck Norris is the exception.)

Eighty-two percent of women report a preference for cleanly shaven men and another 83% say it's sexy when a man has a smooth touchable face. Additionally:

    * 76% say they love it when their man shaves
    * 76% agree a "cleanly shaven man turns me on"
    * 64% say when their man shaves, they just can't keep their hands off of him
    * 78% would rather kiss a cleanly shaven man than a scruffy man
    * 64% would rather have sex with a cleanly shaven man than a scruffy one

Also, according to the survey, women ranked body odor and dandruff the top two biggest turn-offs in a man. I started shaving three times a day and I feel sexier already.

Apr 27, 2010

Food From the Fifties

This was a decade of food invention.

Sugar Smacks (Kellogg's)
Cheeze Whiz (Kraft)
TV Dinners (Swanson)
Pepperidge Farm butter cookies
Star-Kist canned tuna
Eggo Frozen Waffles

Trix (General Mills)
Butterball Turkeys (Swift-Eckrich)
Stouffer's frozen meals (Stouffer)
Nonfat dry milk (Carnation)
Burger King fast food chain
Shakey's Pizza fast food chain
Peanut M&Ms (Hershey's)
Marshmallow Peeps - do people really eat these?

Special K breakfast food (Kellogg's)
Pepperidge Farm cookies
Kentucky Fried Chicken (Colonel Sanders)

Imperial margarine (Lever Brothers)
Certs breath mints

Pam nonstick cooking spray
Refrigerated cookie dough (Pillsbury)

Tang (it went to the moon)
Ruffles potato chips
Sweet 'n Low sugarless sweetener
Cocoa Puffs (General Mills)
Jif peanut butter
Chicken Ramen noodles
Instant Tea (Lipton)
Pizza Hut
International House of Pancakes

Top Seven Uses for Vodka

Fill a spray bottle with vodka and spray on shower mold. Let set fifteen minutes and wash away.

Use vodka to spray on insects in the yard to get rid of them.

Pour vodka on skin that has come into contact with poison ivy, and the alcohol will wash away much of the itchy urushiol oil. Saw this one on Mythbusters.

Keep your clothes smelling fresher with vodka by spritzing then hang to dry in a well-ventilated area. Vodka kills odor-causing bacteria, but doesn't leave a scent when dry.

Moisten a soft, clean cloth with vodka, then rub chrome or porcelain for a sparkling surface.

Add a few drops of vodka and a teaspoon of sugar to the water in your flower vase to keep your flowers fresh longer. Change with fresh ingredients daily.

Add a jigger of vodka to a 12-ounce bottle of shampoo for squeaky clean and shiny hair.

Of course the best use of vodka is to buy some bacon vodka and make the perfect morning Bloody Mary.

Theft at Best Buy

The remarkable heist of a Best Buy store in New Jersey almost seemed to be from the Mission Impossible movie, as thieves made off with $26,000 worth of Apple notebooks without leaving a trace in the store.

Best Buy employees discovered a hole in the roof, while not a single motion sensor was set off, and no evidence captured on the security cameras.  The thieves employed a “high degree of sophistication. They never touched the floor. They rappelled in and rappelled out” according to a police department spokesman.

They scaled a gas pipe located on the side of the building onto the roof, where they cut a 3-ft wide hole, used some kind of suction to lift the piece out, lowered themselves 16 feet into the store (10 feet off the ground, so motion sensors would not go off).  Everything was planned so store banners would obscure the security cameras. They absconded with the laptops off metal racks, while hanging from the ceiling, Tom Cruise style.

Vegan Dental Floss

Yes, that's correct. Dental floss with "no mint and has a natural Cinnamon Flavor and it is completely free of all animal source ingredients" is being pushed by at least one company.

Use of dental floss with waxed silken thread came about in about 1819, but the use of dental floss was not common because silken thread was too expensive. During World War II, Dupont began using nylon and it replaced silk as the new material for many products, including dental floss. Of course, there are resin-coated nylon and teflon coated floss, but they do not use animal parts either.  Not sure what kind of  "animal source ingredients"   are found in synthetic materials..

Apr 23, 2010

Thinner LCD TV

Researchers at Japanese chemical company Teijin and Yamaguchi University claimed that they’ve come up a new production method to reduce the weight of LCD displays. Compared with conventional LCD displays with silicon solid-state devices placed on glass substrates, the new technology features a thin layer of heat-resistant silicon dioxide on plastic. 

The improvement results in less heat will be generated and TVs that are 50% lighter. According to the researchers, the new tech also leads to clearer images. The LCD TVs should be on the market in 2013.


Adding new words and phrases into English has been greatly enhanced by the pleasure we get from playing with words. There are numerous alliterative and rhyming idioms which are a significant feature of our language. We start in the nursery with choo-choos, move on in adult life to hanky-panky and end up in the nursing home having a sing-song.

The repeating of parts of words to make new forms is called reduplication. There are various categories of this: rhyming, exact and ablaut (vowel substitution). Examples, are respectively, okey-dokey, wee-wee, and zig-zag. The words that make up these reduplicated idioms often have little meaning in themselves and only appear as part of a pair. In other cases, one word will allude to some existing meaning and the other half of the pair is added for effect or emphasis. Is there anything other than a spider that is eency-weency? Is there anything other than a dance that is hokey-pokey?

During the 1920s, following the First World War, when many nonsense word pairs were coined, such as  the bee's knees, heebie-jeebies etc. Willy-nilly is over a thousand years old. Riff-raff dates from the 1400s and helter-skelter, arsy-versy ( a form of vice-versa), and hocus-pocus all date from the 16th century. Now we have bling-bling, boob-tube and hip-hop. Just thought I would razzle-dazzle you with this one.

LED Lights

The U.S. Department of Energy expects to phase out common tungsten bulbs in four years and compact-fluorescent bulbs in 10 years. That will leave LEDs with virtually 100 percent of the market.

LED lights use less energy, contain no mercury as fluorescent use, and produce much less heat than normal bulbs.

Tall Presidents

Did you know that in the past 27 US presidential elections, the shorter candidate has won only six times? Handlers for Jimmy Carter (5' 9") went to great lengths to prevent him from having to stand next to the taller Gerald Ford (6 foot+). It worked, Carter won. Eighteen presidents have been 6 foot or taller. James Madison was the shortest at 5 foot 4.

Did you also know that Napoleon was 4 foot 11 or (5 foot 6, depending on what you read), Paul Simon and Dudley Moore 5 foot 2. Tom Cruise 5 foot 8 (Thomas Cruise Mapother IV) 

Michigan is the only state that has a statute prohibiting height discrimination.

Modern Classrooms

My, how far we have come.
 "OK, Class scroll down to page 153."

Flying Penguins

I forgot to add this one to my April 1 posting. 90 second video hosted by Terry Jones, from Monty Python fame. LINK

Recycling Mattresses

With increasing concern over our throw-away culture, many have asked what happens to those old mattresses and if there is any way to keep them from being in a landfill or incinerated with toxic consequences.

A mattress is one of the most difficult products to recycle due to its complex multi-material structure. One company is Massachusetts developed a minute-and-a-half process, which involves feeding a mattress through a large-scale shredder to break it apart and allow it to be magnetically separated into its individual parts, (foam, cotton, wood, and steel) for resale as raw materials. 

A typical mattress is a 23 cubic foot assembly of steel, wood, cotton and polyurethane foam. They have typically been difficult to recycle, and most municipal recycling facilities won't offer to do it for you.

St. Vincent de Paul Society has spearheaded one of the nation's most successful mattress recycling initiatives via its DR3 ("Divert, Reduce, Reuse, Recycle") program.

Food From the Seventies

1970: Orville Redenbacher's Gourmet Popping Corn, Hamburger Helper, Morton's salt substitute
1971: Starbucks founded, McCormick's "Roast in a Bag Kit"
1972: Celestial Seasonings Herbal Teas, Snapple, Quaker Oates granola
1973: Egg McMuffins, Cup O'Noodles, Stove Top Stuffing, Promise (margarine), Brim (caffeine-free instant coffee)
1974: Yoplait yogurt, Miller Lite, Mrs. Field's Cookies, Mr. Coffee
1975: Famous Amos Chocolate Chip Cookies, Country Time lemonade
1976: Pop Rocks, Burger King launches its "Have it Your Way", Starburst Fruit Chews, Oodles of Noodles, Puritan Oil, Perrier Water introduced to U.S. markets
1977: Twix Cookie Bars, Denny's Grand Slam Breakfast, recyclable soda bottles, plastic grocery bags
1978: McCormick's Lite Gravy, Ben & Jerry's Homemade Ice Cream, Reggie Bar (candy), Reese's Pieces, Arby's Beef'n'Cheddar Sandwich

Apr 20, 2010

Wrap up the Leftovers

Saran wrap (polyvinylidene chloride) In 1933, Ralph Wiley, a Dow Chemical lab worker, accidentally discovered polyvinylidene chloride or Saran.

Bacon Suckers

Lolliphile packs plenty of pucker into their lollipops. They make absinthe, white Russian, and wasabi-ginger  to name a few. In addition, they offer a bacon lollipop with a kick of caffeine.

According to Lolliphile, “We invented the Maple Bacon Lollipop, and now we’ve improved it: we’ve made it the bacon-y equivalent of an energy drink, adding two cups worth of caffeine to the already time-tested wonder of organic, sustainably farmed bacon and delicious Vermont maple syrup.” A pack of 5 costs less than $4. Yumm!

Kid Gloves

They get their name because they’re made from the hide of young goats.

Gigabytes, Terabytes, and Petabytes

One gigabyte of storage cost $228 in 1998 and costs about 88 cents today. A gigabyte holds about 7 minutes of a HD TV movie.

A terabyte is 1,024 gigabytes. The first terabyte hard drive came out in 2007. In May 2009, Yahoo! Groups had 40 terabytes of data to index.

There is an even larger scale these days, petabytes. One petabyte is 1,024 terabytes. A petabyte holds 13.3 years of HD TV movies. To provide more perspective, Google processes an average of about 20 petabytes of data per day. Finally, 50 petabytes is equal to the entire written history of mankind from the beginning of recorded history. What's next? An exabyte is 1024 petabytes.

Apr 19, 2010

Life is a Joy

“I slept and I dreamed that life is all joy, I woke and I saw that life is all service.
I served and I saw that service is joy.”
Mother Theresa

Apr 16, 2010

Diet Water

If you are thinking about slimming down for summer, you might want to try some of this.
If not, read the next item about chocolate.

Chocolate Lowers Blood Pressure

Research that shows just one small square of chocolate a day can lower your blood pressure and reduce your risk of heart disease. The study is published online in the European Heart Journal.

Researchers in Germany followed 19,357 people, aged between 35 and 65, for at least ten years and found that those who ate an average of 7.5 grams (about .25oz) a day, had lower blood pressure and a 39% lower risk of having a heart attack or stroke compared to those who ate the least amount of chocolate, an average of 1.7 grams a day. The difference between the two groups amounts to six grams of chocolate: the equivalent of less than one small square of a 3.5 ounce bar.

The people in the study were participants in the Potsdam arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC). They received medical checks, including blood pressure, height and weight measurements at the start of the study between 1994-1998, and they also answered questions about their diet, lifestyle and health. The researchers asked a sub-set of 1,568 participants to recall their chocolate intake over a 24-hour period and to indicate which type of chocolate they ate. In this sub-set, 57% ate milk chocolate, 24% dark chocolate and 2% white chocolate.

In follow-up questionnaires, sent out every two or three years until December 2006, the study participants were asked whether they had had a heart attack or stroke, information which was subsequently verified by medical records from general physicians or hospitals. Death certificates from those who had died were also used to identify heart attacks and strokes.

People in the top quartile had a 27% reduced risk of heart attacks and nearly half the risk (48%) of strokes, compared with those in the lowest quartile.

The researchers believe that flavanols in cocoa may be the reason why chocolate seems to be good for people's blood pressure and heart health; and since there is more cocoa in dark chocolate, dark chocolate may have a greater effect. In fact, dark chocolate with a cocoa content of at least 70%, reduces oxidative stress and improves vascular and platelet function. We may have a new cliche - a truffle a day keeps the blood pressure at bay.

Internet TV

An Android operating system television will be shipping during the third quarter this year. The new TV, named Scandinavia will be 42-inch, with 1080p native resolution and internet connectivity. It includes Android widgets and provides access to YouTube, Google Maps, the weather, an internet browser, Facebook, Twitter, etc.

A USB socket will also be included. Cost will likely be between $2,500 and $3,500. Finally we get the best (or worst) of both TV and the Internet.

Google Ads

Google has a web site http://google.com/ads/preferences that allows you to opt in or opt out of having specific ads shown as you wander around the web. To see ads that are more related to your interests, you can edit the interest categories, which are based on sites you have recently visited.

Your interests are associated with an advertising cookie that's stored in your browser.

Internet Cookies

Unlike the tasty morsels of real cookies, internet cookies are dropped in your computer from almost every site that you visit.

Sometimes there are good cookies, like those that let you log in to sites without always typing your password, but usually the cookies track where you have been so the web owner knows you have been there before. Anyone with a bit of coding knowledge can look at all your cookies and track where you have gone on the web.

I find cookies to be an invasion of my privacy, and luckily there is a way to get rid of those pesky space hogs on my disk. If you use Internet Explorer, go to the top line and click on 'Tools' then click on 'Internet Options', then click on 'Browsing History'. You are then shown options to delete temporary files, history, cookies, etc. Click on the boxes next to those items you wish to delete and click 'delete'. You may be surprised that it will take a few minutes if you have never deleted the files before. If you use Firefox, go to 'Tools', 'Options', 'Privacy' to do the same thing.

Both Internet Explorer and Firefox, also have a check box option to 'Delete browsing history on exit' and it will clean out your cookies and history each time you exit the program. This does not clean up all the temporary files, but it does help preserve your privacy. It's like cleaning your computer and protecting your privacy at the same time.

Undiet Food

I would love to have some bacon and fries on a stick. Yumm!

Apr 13, 2010

I Know What You Are Thinking

Intel Corp. has introduced software that analyzes functional MRI scans to determine what parts of a person's brain are being activated as he or she thinks. it has 90 percent accuracy in guesses about which of two words a person was thinking about. Eventually, the technology could help the severely physically disabled to communicate.

The system works best when a person is first scanned while thinking of dozens of different concrete nouns - words like "bear" or "hammer." When test subjects are then asked to pick one of two new terms and think about it, the software uses the earlier results as a baseline to determine what the person is thinking. Very cool stuff.

Glowing Toilet Paper

The first packaged toilet paper was the 1857 invention of American, Joseph Gayetty and called Gayetty's Medicated Paper. In 1880, the British Perforated Paper Company created a paper product to be used for wiping after using the toilet that came in boxes of small pre-cut squares. In 1879, the Scott Paper Company began selling the first toilet paper on a roll, however, toilet paper in roll form did not become common until 1907. In 1942, St. Andrew's Paper Mill in Great Britain introduced the first two-ply toilet paper.

Now you can buy the person who has everything a roll of glowing toilet paper. It is just the thing for hunting in the woods, when the power goes out, or when you don't want to turn on the lights. It costs about eight dollars a roll. Sorry, it is not on my Christmas list.

Soap Dispenser

This has to be the grossest invention in quite some time. It oozes green goo soap when you press the nose. Sorry, but it just struck me funny when I saw it. Kind of goes with the glowing toilet paper.


According to the US Department of State -
"Energy use for heating and cooling is directly responsive to weather variation. The AEO forecast of CO 2 emissions assumes 30-year average values for population-weighted heating and cooling degree-days. Unlike other sources of uncertainty, for which deviations between assumed and actual trends may follow a persistent course over time, the effect of weather on energy use and emissions in any particular year is largely independent from year to year."   I get it, the weather will either be the same or different and that is certainly not an uncertainty.

A Hundred Years Ago

1910 Thomas Edison demonstrated the first talking motion picture.
Georges Claude displayed the first neon lamp to the public on December 11, 1910, in Paris.
Fifty years ago, 1960 - The halogen lamp invented.

Apr 9, 2010

LED Umbrella

Here is a cool idea, an umbrella with an LED handle. Think of dark and rainy nights and this offers some light as well as protection from the elements.

They are only $24.99 at thinkgeek.com and come in red and blue, with 3 AAA batteries included.

Electronic Undies

True - The rollout of the world's first electronic underpants has been announced in Australia. They are designed for the elderly and infirm and will be used in aged care homes across New South Wales to monitor incontinence.

"We developed the system to provide greater comfort and dignity to the elderly while aiming to significantly lower costs for aged care facilities." The company said its underpants have a disposable element, similar to a regular incontinence pad, and include a detachable transmitter that relays readings from the pad's sensor strip over a wireless network to a central computer via text message or over the institution's paging system.

More than 90 per cent of Australians living in elderly care facilities are believed to suffer from incontinence - a problem that currently requires staff to carry out frequent manual checks throughout the day.

Interesting Fact

Percentage of Africa that is wilderness: 28% - Percentage of North America that is wilderness: 38%.

First Automatic Dishwasher

In 1850, Joel Houghton patented the first automatic dishwasher a wooden machine with a hand-turned wheel that splashed water on dishes. It wasn't much, but it was the first patent. In 1886, Josephine Cochran invented the first practical dishwasher. It was also hand operated. Dishwashers did not become household items until the 1950s.

Bacon Cheddar Chips

Here is an interesting twist, potato chips on the outside and bacon with cheddar on the inside. Salty, crunchy, cheesy, and smoky, what more can a person want.

Butterz are hand formed and the bacon and cheddar are coated with an actual potato chip wrapped around. In fact, it’s a thick potato chip batter, like Pringles. They also have other flavors made by B More Nutz in Baltimore and are available online.

Hack My Car

More than 100 drivers in Austin, Texas found their cars disabled or the horns honking out of control lat month, after a hacker used a web-based vehicle-immobilization system normally used to get the attention of consumers delinquent in their auto payments.

Police arrested a 20-year-old former Texas Auto Center employee who was laid off and allegedly sought revenge.

“We started having a rash of up to a hundred customers at one time complaining. Some customers complained of the horns going off in the middle of the night. The only option they had was to remove the battery.”

The dealership used a system called Webtech Plus as an alternative to repossessing vehicles that haven’t been paid for. The system lets car dealers install a small black box under vehicle dashboards that responds to commands issued through a central website, and relayed over a wireless pager network. The dealer can disable a car’s ignition system or trigger the horn to begin honking, as a reminder that a payment is due. The system will not stop a running vehicle. Honk if you love technology. Who says there is no big brother.

Remote Beer Opener

Here is one of those, 'I wonder who thought of that' inventions. It is actually available on the web for $25. A nine function universal remote control with built in beer opener. Hmmm.

Beer Opener Cuff Links

If that is not good enough, here are some bottle opener cuff links. How many folks do you know that wear cuff links to drink beer?

Apr 6, 2010

What's in a Name

The use of an additional 'middle name' started in 17th century aristocracy, and didn't become popular among the masses until the 19th century. Only three of the first seventeen US presidents had middle names. John Quincy Adams was the first.

Odd Book Prize Awarded

The winner for 2010 is 'Crocheting Adventures With Hypberbolic Planes'.

The Diagram Prize was founded in 1978 and is run by trade magazine The Bookseller. The winner of the Diagram Prize for year's oddest book title, decided by public vote, was announced March 26.

The six finalists are "Afterthoughts of a Worm Hunter;" "Collectible Spoons of the Third Reich;" "Governing Lethal Behavior in Autonomous Robots;" "The Changing World of Inflammatory Bowel Disease"; "Crocheting Adventures with Hyperbolic Planes;" and "What Kind of Bean is This Chihuahua?"

The shortlist was narrowed down from 90 entries, including "The Origin of Feces" and "Bacon: A Love Story."

Previous champions include "Bombproof Your Horse" and "Living With Crazy Buttocks." Maybe I should have submitted my original book series, 'Terrible Tommy's Titillating Tidbits of Turpitude and Trivia.'

New From KFC

It's "Double Down" bacon and cheese sandwiched between two pieces of fried chicken. Even KFC is getting in on the bacon phenomenon. Even calorie conscious Subway has a double bacon, egg, and cheese breakfast sandwich.

Apr 2, 2010

White House Easter Egg Roll

The White House announced that the theme of this year’s highly anticipated Easter event is “Ready, Set, Go!” with a goal of promoting health and wellness.

The roll will take place Monday, April 5, one day after Easter Sunday, on the South Lawn of the White House. According to a statement, there will be live music, sports, cooking stations where children can learn how to make healthy food, storytelling and egg-rolling.

George Washington's Teeth

He did not have wooden teeth as commonly believed. According to a study of Washington's four known dentures performed by a forensic anthropologist from the University of Pittsburgh in collaboration with the National Museum of Dentistry, the dentures were made of gold, hippopotamus ivory, lead, human and animal teeth, including horse and donkey teeth. Oh, and he didn't really cut down that cherry tree.

Washing the White Lions

In the middle ages lions really were kept in the Tower of London.  By Victoria's reign in 1837 all the lions had been moved to safer accommodation in Regents Park.  In 1860 April Fool's day fell on a Sunday, so a prankster had an idea to invite 'all and sundry' to the Tower of London to see the annual washing of the white lions.

The invitation said: Admit the bearer and friend to view the annual ceremony of 'Washing the white lions' on Sunday, April 1st, 1860.  Thousands of people turned up and waited, until one-by-one, it dawned on them that they had been hoaxed.

Apr 1, 2010

Color TV Hoax

Another April Fool's Day joke was played in 1962 when there was only one tv channel in Sweden, and it broadcast in black and white. The station's technical expert, Kjell Stensson, appeared on the news to announce that, thanks to a new technology, viewers could convert their existing sets to display color reception. All they had to do was pull a nylon stocking over their tv screen. Stensson proceeded to demonstrate the process. Thousands of people were taken in. Regular color broadcasts only commenced in Sweden on April 1, 1970.