Jul 26, 2013

Happy Friday

Any word you have to hunt for in a thesaurus is the wrong word.

You never need to hunt for the meaning of having a Happy Friday!

Free Hug Day

Did you get yours? The first Saturday in July is free hug day. It started by an Australian who realized the healing powers of a simple hug. He went to a shopping mall equipped with a “Free Hugs” sign and soon overcame leery passersby to give his free hugs exactly as advertised. 

In 2006, the Australian band Sick Puppies made a video of his endeavor, and helped spread the movement by way of a 74 million times viewed video on YouTube.

Eleven Ways to be Happy

Hugs may not be on this list, but they should be.
Spend money on other people. A study  concluded that "the happiest people were the biggest givers, no matter what they earned."

Count your blessings. A University of Pennsylvania professor proved that people who wrote down three good things that happened to them every night were significantly happier than control group who did not.

Try something new. People who try new experiences are generally happier, research has shown.

Delay gratification. Anticipating happiness actually makes you happy. Studies have shown that it's human nature to forestall an enjoyable event.

Expose yourself to more blue. Researchers showed that exposing yourself to the color blue sent "self confidence soaring, cut stress, and boosts happiness."

Set goals for yourself. Psychologist Jonathan Freedman claims that people who set objectives for themselves are happier than those who don't.

Go to church. In a study, people who attended church regularly responded that they were happier and more satisfied with their lives than people who were not religious.

Sleep at least six hours every night. Six hours and 15 minutes a night of un-interrupted sleep makes for the happiest people, a British study found.

Make sure you have at least 10 good friends. Adults who said they had 10 good friends were happier than those who could count five or less close friends.

Fake it 'til you make it. Several studies have shown that just the act of smiling can cause people to experience happy feelings.

Have a romantic relationship. People in relationships were generally found to be happier than other people, and spouses have the highest sense of well-being whether they are happily married or not, according to a study from Cornell University. Of course, listening to "Don't Worry, Be Happy" always makes me smile.

Worcestershire Sauce

This is difficult to spell and more difficult to pronounce liquid is made of vinegar and soy sauce, spices, and liquefied anchovies. The anchovies are soaked in vinegar until they are totally dissolved, including the bones.

It is named for the town  in England where it was originally brewed. (woos teh shur) Here is one Heinz pronunciation LINK

Driest and Wettest

Parts of Antarctica have had no rain for two million years, so it is considered the driest place on earth.

A desert is technically defined as a place that receives less than 254 mm (10 inches) of rain a year. The Sahara desert gets just 25 mm (1 inch) of rain a year. Antarctica’s average annual rainfall is about the same, but 2 per cent of it, known as the Dry Valleys, is free of ice and snow and it never rains there at all.

Antarctica can also claim to be the wettest, since seventy per cent of the world’s fresh water is found there in the form of ice.

The next-driest place in the world is the Atacama Desert in Chile. In some areas, no rain has fallen there for 400 years and its average annual rainfall is 0.1 mm (0.004 inches).

Hot Day Car Tip

To keep from burning your hand on your gear shift lever, put an upside down beer cozy over it. Instant cool.

Homo Sapiens

Homo sapiens is Latin for 'wise man'. It is the scientific name for the human species. Homo is the human genus, which also includes Neanderthals and many other extinct species of hominid. H. sapiens is the only surviving species of the genus Homo. Modern humans are the subspecies Homo sapiens sapiens.

German anthropologist Friedrich Blumenbach divided Homo sapiens into five distinct races based on their physical characteristics. There was the Mongolian, or yellow race, the red American race, the brown Malayan race, the black Ethiopian race, and the white Caucasian race.

He looked at many physical traits to carve out his categories and thought characteristics of the skull, the size and angle of the forehead, jawbone, teeth, eye sockets, etc. were especially important.

He thought that the skulls of Georgians were exemplary of the characteristics of his white race and named the group (Caucasian) after the Caucasus Mountain Range that runs along Georgia’s northern border.

Wordology, Bridegroom

This word comes from the Old English “bridgome.” Gome was then a word for 'man'.

Spelling Bee

The “bee” in spelling bee means a gathering or get together. The earliest documented case of this word appearing with this meaning was in 1769, referring to a spinning bee, where people would gather to protest purchasing goods from Britain due to the high taxes on those items.

Any sort of major competition or work gathering, with a specific task in mind, was a 'bee'. Gatherings that were commonly labeled with 'bee' were: apple bee, logging bee, quilting bee, barn bee, hanging bee, sewing bee, field bee, and corn husking bee, among others.

The popular theory among etymologists today is that it is likely that the actual origin of bee, in the sense of gathering, derives from the Old English bēn (prayer / favor), or the Middle English 'bene'. Finally, this resulted in “bean” meaning “help given by neighbors”.

The first US National Spelling Bee was in 1925, sponsored by the Louisville Courier-Journal. Nine finalists competed in the first spelling bee in Washington D.C. The winning word that year was “gladiolus”, spelled by Frank Neuhauser.

In 1941, E.W. Scripps Company began sponsoring the National Spelling Bee and changed the name to Scripps National Spelling Bee.

It offers a study booklet to prospective contestants that contains between 1,000 and 4,000 words. It also currently offers a list of over 24,000 words that include all words used in the National Spelling Bee since 1950, sorted by frequency of use in the contest. The word that has been used the most in the National Spelling Bee is connoisseur.

The winner of the National Spelling Bee receives several prizes including: $30,000 cash prize from the National Spelling Bee; $5,000 cash prize from Sigma Phi Epsilon Educational Foundation; $2,500 savings bond; a complete reference library from Merriam-Webster; a lifetime membership to Britannica Online Premium Encyclopedia; $2,600 worth of reference works; and a trophy. The second place contestant receives $12,500.

To date, 45 girls have won the spelling bee vs. 41 boys. That is sure to create a buzz.

Jul 19, 2013

Happy Friday

When I wake up, my premature optimism is always rewarded, especially when I have a Happy Friday!

Top Twelve Ice Cream Facts

Since July is National Ice Cream Month (created by Ronald Reagan in 1984) and (third Sunday in July (July 21) is National Ice Cream Day), thought I would dish up a few frozen goodie facts.

Ice cream has the following composition by weight:  greater than 10% milkfat by legal definition, 9 to 12% milk solids-not-fat, 12 to 16% sweeteners, 0.2 to 0.5% stabilizers and emulsifiers, 55% to 64% water which comes from the milk or other ingredients.

The history of ice cream dates back to the second century B.C.
The ice cream cone was invented in 1896 with a patent being issued in 1903 to Italo Marchiony.

The United States is the top ice cream consuming country in the world.

It takes 12 lbs. of milk to make a gallon of ice cream.

Vanilla is the number one selling flavor at 27.8%, followed by chocolate 14.3%, strawberry 3.3% (hot dog flavored ice-cream is made by Udder Delights in Arizona).

Chocolate syrup is the favorite topping to put on ice cream.

The major ingredient in ice cream is air.

Depending on conditions of storage, ice cream might last one year, or it might be two weeks or less.

PETA urged Ben & Jerry's to replace cow's milk in its ice cream with human breast milk.

In the late 19th century, America's soda shops bowed to pressure from local churches to not serve ice cream sodas on Sundays. They removed the soda from the recipe and invented the ice cream sundae.

Ice cream is made from milk fat and milk solids. Sorbet is non-dairy and usually high in sugar. Yogurt is usually tart with low or no fat milk substitute. Custard is rich and smooth with lots of egg in it.

An average dairy cow can produce enough milk in her lifetime to make a little over 9,000 gallons of ice cream.

July is also National Grilling Month.

Biggest and Smallest Eggs

The Ostrich lays the smallest egg for its size. Although the Ostrich egg is the largest single cell in nature, it is less than one and a half per cent of the weight of the mother. A wren’s egg, by comparison, is 13 per cent of its weight.

The largest egg in comparison with the size of the bird is that of the Little Spotted Kiwi. Its egg accounts for 26 per cent of its own weight. That would be the equivalent of a woman giving birth to a six-year-old child.

An ostrich egg weighs as much as twenty-four hen’s eggs. Can you imagine how much bacon it would take to go with an Ostrich egg omelet?

World Record for World Records

Keith (Ashrita Furman) Record-Winning Age: 51 Award Date: June 6, 2006 Fastest Time for a Male to Hoola Hoop 10km.

Furman also holds the record for “most records held at one time by an individual” 160 as of 2012.

He has set records on seven continents and in more than 30 different countries

Since 1979, Furman has set 450 official Guinness Records, including juggling on a pogo stick the furthest distance (4 miles 30 feet) and quickest time for a mile-long piggy back (12 minutes, 47 seconds). He converted an indoor rower with wheels and brakes and rowed 1,500 miles (2,400 km) in 16 days in Bali in 1991. When not breaking records, he manages a health food store in Queens, New York.

Runner up is Suresh Joachim Arulanantham, a Canadian film actor and multiple-Guinness World Record holder who has broken 60 world records set in several countries in attempts to benefit underprivileged children around the world.

Same and Opposite

Clip can mean "to bind together" or "to separate." You clip sheets of paper to together or separate part of a page by clipping something out.

Continue usually means to persist in doing something, but as a legal term it means stop a proceeding temporarily.

Fight with can be interpreted three ways. “He fought with his mother-in-law” could mean "They argued," "They served together in the war," or "He used her as a weapon."

Hold up can mean "to support" or "to hinder."

Out can mean "visible" or "invisible." For example, “It’s a good thing the full moon was out when the lights went out.”

Paper Bag Numbers

The number on the bag indicates its capacity. Smaller units, called bags or grocers, have numbers from 1/2 to 25, signifying the approximate weight in pounds of sugar or flour the bag can hold.

Larger varieties, known as sacks, are sized in fractions of a barrel, e.g., 1/6, the size most commonly found in supermarkets.

Wordology, Ultracrepidarian

A person who gives opinions and advice on matters outside of one's knowledge. See next post. . .

Lawyer Thoughts

Washington D.C. has about 277 lawyers for every 10,000 residents. This is nearly 14 times more lawyers per 10,000 than any other state in the United States.

New York has the second most lawyers per capita.

The lowest lawyer rate per capita is North Dakota with about 4 lawyers per 10,000 people. I think we should move the capital to North Dakota.

Seven Kitchen Tips

Microwave garlic cloves for 15 seconds and the skins slip off.
When working with dough, coat your with olive oil to prevent sticking.
Wrap celery in aluminum foil and put it in the refrigerator to keep for weeks.
Let raw potatoes stand in cold water for at least half an hour before frying to improve the crispness of french-fried potatoes.

Microwave lemons, limes, or oranges for 15 seconds in the microwave before squeezing them and you get twice as much juice.
After you drain pasta, while it’s still hot, grate some fresh Parmesan on top before tossing it with your sauce, so the sauce has more to stick to

Bertrand Russell Thoughts

"The Ten Commandments that, as a teacher, I should wish to promulgate, might be set forth as follows:

  • Do not feel absolutely certain of anything.
  • Do not think it worth while to proceed by concealing evidence, for the evidence is sure to come to light.
  • Never try to discourage thinking for you are sure to succeed.
  • When you meet with opposition, even if it should be from your husband or your children, endeavor to overcome it by argument and not by authority, for a victory dependent upon authority is unreal and illusory.
  • Have no respect for the authority of others, for there are always contrary authorities to be found.
  • Do not use power to suppress opinions you think pernicious, for if you do the opinions will suppress you.
  • Do not fear to be eccentric in opinion, for every opinion now accepted was once eccentric.
  • Find more pleasure in intelligent dissent than in passive agreement, for, if you value intelligence as you should, the former implies a deeper agreement than the latter.
  • Be scrupulously truthful, even if the truth is inconvenient, for it is more inconvenient when you try to conceal it.
  • Do not feel envious of the happiness of those who live in a fool’s paradise, for only a fool will think that it is happiness."


This new spray from Rustoleum  promises to make any surface impervious to water and other liquids. It is called a super hydrophobic coating, developed by Ross Nanotechnology and marketed by Rustoleum.

Check this LINK for a demo and you will be impressed. I saw another demo that included a smart phone which was sprayed, placed in a bowl of water, and came out unharmed. A disclaimer says it is not intended for electronic devices or clothing, but ads show its use on these items.

This is not late night infomercial, but a real product you can get at Home Depot or Amazon (more stores coming soon). Oh, $19.95 for the two step spray on process, which covers about 15 square feet. Not a panacea as the ads portray and a coating does not last forever, but a very good product. Am thinking back yard seat cushions are a perfect application. Cool Stuff.

Jul 12, 2013

Happy Friday

“With most men, unbelief in one thing springs from blind belief in another.”

I believe all days are great, and still enjoy a Happy Friday!

Change Your Eye Color

Dr. Gregg Homer of Stroma Medical is developing the technology for a laser procedure that will turn brown eyes blue. He says a 20-second procedure that removes melanin, the pigment that gives brown eyes their color, will permanently make them blue without affecting a patient’s eyesight. The change occurs gradually over two weeks. The procedure can not change blue eyes to brown.

The majority of the world’s population has brown eyes, and the number of blue-eyed people is decreasing in America.

The doctor says he expects to do another year of testing before the technique becomes available outside of the United States in less than two years, and within the United States in three. It is estimated the procedure will cost $5,000. 

Redefining Round

A company called Shark Wheel is reinventing the wheel. Instead of the conventional circular shape, this new skateboard wheel is based around a cube shape. The company claims its new wheels ride smoother, faster, and offer better grip than traditional skateboard wheels.

The wheels are based around a shape that fits inside a cube. They aren't quite a square, and aren't quite circular, but are made up of three strips, each of which create a helical shape when they roll. This forms a sine wave pattern where the wheels make contact with the ground. 

The new wheels should start hitting the streets in September, 2013.

Four Unusual Cemeteries

The largest man made reef in the world three miles off the coast of Key Biscayne, the Neptune Memorial Reef, is also an underwater mausoleum. The graveyard is 40 feet below the surface of the water, allowing divers swim among statues and sea life to visit deceased family members. Divers go down with ashes mixed with cement and place the mixture in a selected location. The cost for placement is $2,600 to $4,000, and there are 1,200 spots in the initial development.

In the lagoons of Venice Italy, San Michele island has been occupied only by the dead since the early 1800s. Two other structures on the island are the Church of San Michele, built in 1469, and the Cappella Emiliana, built in 1543. Because space is limited on the island, Venetians who are interred on San Michele have ten years of peace before their remains are exhumed and moved to an ossuary. Igor Stravinsky and Ezra pound are interred there.

The Hallstatt, Austria Ossuary, or Beinhaus (Bone House), is filled with about 700 painted skulls and 500 undecorated skulls. The ossuary dates back to the 17th century and is notable for the decorations painted on many of the skulls.

The Calico, California Ghost Town Cemetery is the town's original burial site with headstones dating back to 1882. Today, only those who have a long relationship with Calico are given the honor of being buried alongside the 19th-century miners, but space is limited.

Taking Naps

Here is an interesting web site. It is dedicated to helping you to take naps. The theory is that you can take a better nap if you have background sounds to help. The site provides free MP3 files to play when you are ready to catch a few winks.   LINK 

On another day I will go into the background and philosophy of taking power naps to refresh yourself during the day, but now I feel a bit tired.

New Cast Design

With this new 3D-printed exoskeletal cast idea, the incredibly fun and funky looking design provides a bit of leeway when it comes to scratching that itch halfway down your arm or balancing one leg outside of the shower so as not to get the cast wet. Victoria University of Wellington Architecture and Design school graduate Jake Evill recently developed this concept, called Cortex.

The exoskeletal cast provides a strong fractured-bone support system featuring lightweight protection that is ventilated, recyclable, and shower friendly.

To produce the cast, the patient receives an X-Ray scan during which the break is identified. That specific area is then 3D scanned and the data is fed into the computer to generate a 3D-printed cast. The final product has one open side that is eventually snapped closed with strong fasteners.

Jul 9, 2013

Moon Amtrak Day

34th Annual Mooning of Amtrak, 8th Annual Mooning of Metrolink - All Day Saturday, July 13, 2013, Laguna Niguel, California, U.S.A.

In 1979, K.T. Smith offered to buy a drink for anyone willing to moon the next train that passed the Mugs Away Saloon in Laguna Niguel, California

Since then, the second Saturday in July has become “Moon Amtrak Day,” when hundreds of drinkers bare their bottoms at the many trains that pass through town. No one organizes, controls, directs, or is responsible for this annual event.

Dalai Lama, Winter Home

In case you were wondering where the Buddhist holy Dalai Lama, whose name is Tenzin Gyatso, spent his winters until he went into exile in 1959, this is it. Since then, he has been living in India and has referred to himself as a Marxist. He has received a Nobel Peace Prize.

The Potala Palace in Tibet was built in the 7th century. 

Tibetans address the Dalai Lama as Gyalwa Rinpoche ("Precious Victor"), Kundun ("Presence"), Yishin Norbu ("Wish fulfilling Gem") among others, and His Holiness by Westerners. The 14th Dalai Lama (since 1950) retired March 14, 2011.

All Dalai Lamas are a reincarnation of the previous one. High Lamas have a vision by a dream or if the Dalai Lama was cremated, they will often monitor the direction of the smoke as an indication of the direction of the rebirth. Once the High Lamas have found the home and the boy they believe to be the reincarnation, the boy undergoes a series of tests to affirm the rebirth. They present a number of artifacts, only some of which belonged to the previous Dalai Lama, and if the boy chooses the items which belonged to the previous Dalai Lama. This is seen as a sign, in conjunction with all of the other indications, that the boy is the reincarnation.

Tenzin Gyatso, who was born born Lhamo Dondrub on July 6, 1935 has stated that he will not be reborn in the People's Republic of China and has also suggested he may not be reborn at all, suggesting the function of the Dalai Lama may be outdated. He said, "Naturally my next life is entirely up to me. No one else, and also this is not a political matter."

On July 12

Bill Cosby, George Washington Carver, Richard Simmons, R. Buckminster Fuller, Van Clyburn, and Milton Berle, among others were born on this day.

This Day in:
1290  Jews are expelled from England by order of King Edward I
1630  New Amsterdam's governor buys Gull Island from Indians for cargo, renames it Oyster Island, now known as Ellis Island
1843  Mormon leader Joseph Smith say God OKs polygamy
1901  Cy Young wins his 300th game
1914  Babe Ruth makes his baseball debut, pitches for Red Sox
1921  Babe Ruth sets record of 137 career home runs
1962  Rolling Stones 1st performance at Marquee Club, London

Jul 5, 2013

John Adams and Independence

After the members of the Second Continental Congress approved and signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776, John Adams wrote about the occasion in a letter to his wife Abigail, "I am apt to believe that it will be celebrated by succeeding Generations as the great anniversary Festival." He suggested that it should, "Be commemorated as the Day of Deliverance by solemn Acts of Devotion to God Almighty. It ought to be solemnized with Pomp and Parade, with Shows, Games, Sports, Guns, Bells, Bonfires and Illuminations from one End of this Continent to the other from this Time forward forever more." It would be nice if some of our current batch of politicians would read the words of who came before them.

AstroTurf Facts

It was originally named “ChemGrass” before being used by the Houston Astros Major League Baseball team in the Astrodome.

Contrary to popular belief, AstroTurf was not first used or invented for the Houston Astros.  It was originally invented in 1964, two years before the Astros would use it, by Donald L. Elbert, James M. Faria, and Robert T. Wright, working for Monsanto Company.

In 1965, the Houston Astros attempted to use a special type of natural grass on the indoor field, but the semi-transparent ceiling panels did not let in enough sunlight and the grass died within a few months.  This resulted in the Astros organization having to paint the dirt field green, to make it appear more like a normal baseball field.

By the start of the 1966 season, the Astros decided to go with ChemGrass. Due to a limited supply, though, they were only able to get the infield covered for the first half of the season and the outfield was still painted green dirt.  Shortly after the All-Star break, the entire field was covered in ChemGrass and this artificial surface received national attention for the first time.

Soon after other sporting teams began using ChemGrass up for outdoor stadiums, particularly those in colder climates. The product was renamed AstroTurf by John A. Wortmann, an employee of Monsanto.  By 1987, AstroTurf had become so popular that Monsanto made it an independent subsidiary, named AstroTurf Industries, Inc.

AstroTurf eventually became unpopular in outdoor fields, despite the cost benefit, mostly due to the extra wear on player’s bodies. It was typically installed over cement and provided little cushioning compared to real grass and dirt. Currently, over 160 million square feet of AstroTurf is being used on sporting fields and for home use worldwide.

AstroTurf eventually lent its name to the political and business term 'AstroTurfing', where a business or political group will attempt to create an artificial 'movement' to sway public opinion about a topic by making people think 'regular' people are behind the movement.

The US government hired a software company in 2011 to develop special AstroTurfing software, partly by using Facebook, Twitter, and by social engineering that would help the government sway public opinion on various topics. Among other things, the software would scan for online articles written by people with opposing views to what the Administration wanted people to think. It would then create fake accounts and automatically post made up, discrediting information about the authors.

Wordology, Eavesdrop

Eavesdropping originally came from Anglo-Saxon laws against building too close to the border of your land, so the rain running off your roof would not run on to your neighbor's property. The eavesdrip is the width of ground around a house or building which receives the rain water dropping from the eaves.

The primary function of the eaves is to throw rain water off the walls, prevent erosion of the footings, and reduce splatter on the wall from rain as it hits the ground.

Eavesdropper became the word for a person who stands within range of the eaves drip in order to listen to what is said inside the house. Now it has evolved to the act of secretly listening to the private conversations or reading online records of others without their consent. The word eaves is both singular and plural.

Top Ten Web Facts

There are 14.3 trillion web pages on the World Wide Web.

68.8% of all email traffic is spam. (back in 2008, 53.8 trillion spam emails were sent)

51% of all spam is about pharmaceuticals, the top category of all spam.

30.8% used Internet Explorer in 2012 (in 2008 it was 70%)

43% of the top 1 million websites are hosted in the U.S.

44.8 % of internet users live in Asia

11.4% of internet users live in North America

68.4% of smart phones use Android operating system (introduced Sept 2008) vs. iPhone (introduced June 2007) 19.4%

4 billion hours of video are watched on YouTube each month

In 2012, there were 2.7 billion likes on Facebook each day and 5 billion Google's +1 button  each day.

Blood Types

There are 8 main types of blood separated into 4 groups. The groups are A, B, AB, and O. They are grouped together by the presence or absence of an antigen. Antigens are substances within the blood that cause our immune systems to create antibodies. These antibodies kill anything the immune system thinks is a threat.

The specific antigens that create the different blood types are found on the surface of red blood cells and are known as type A and type B. They are separated by the presence of another type of antigen known as rH factor. If this rH antigen is present, blood is considered positive, if absent, negative.

Someone that has type A antigens and rH factor is considered type A+. If someone has both types of antigens and no rH factor would be type AB- blood. If no A or B antigens then it is type O.

All of this matters because of those antibodies your immune system creates. Someone with type A blood will have antibodies for type B, and someone with type B will have antibodies for type A. Type O has antibodies for both A and B. If you were to give type B blood to someone who was type A, their antibodies would attack the type A red blood cells causing very unwanted side effects, including possible death.

The two main types of cells within the blood are red and white. Red blood cells make up nearly 45% of your blood volume. White blood cells make up less than 1%. What is left over is blood plasma at approximately 55% of blood volume.

Red blood cells and most white blood cells are predominantly created within the bone marrow of large bones. White blood cell production is controlled within the immune system.

Flying the Philipines Flag Fact

The flag of the Philippines has three stars, the Sun, and two stripes. One stripe is blue and the other is red.

Which stripe is on top is dependent on whether the nation is at war. As stated by law, “the flag, if flown from a flagpole, shall have its blue field on top in time of peace and the red field on top in time of war."

On July 5

Born 1709: Etienne de Silhouette, French minister of finance and outline portrait artist

Born 1810: P.T. Barnum American showman who formed the Barnum and Bailey Circus

Salvation Army founded this day 1865 by William Booth in London

1979: President Carter delivered his "malaise" speech in which he lamented what he called a "crisis of confidence" in America.

Drying Clean Hands

There are different ways of drying your hands in public places: paper towels, continuous-loop towels and warm-air dryers.

Washing the hands, and then using paper towels or continuous-loop cotton towels reduced the bacterial count by about 45 to 60 per cent, but washing, and then using a warm-air dryer actually increased the bacterial count by an average of 255 per cent.

The bacteria are already inside the warm-air dryers, due to the warm moist environment. Every warm-air dryer they tested had high bacterial counts on the air inlet and 97 per cent had them on the outlet nozzle surfaces as well. In most cases it doesn't matter, because our immune systems are resilient enough to keep the numbers of these bacteria low and the majority of these bugs are fairly harmless.

With a towel (paper or cloth) you can apply some decent mechanical friction to your hands. This is an important part of the hand-cleaning process. A towel soaks up the water, and the bacteria end up in the bin. You can dry 90 per cent of the surface area of your hand within 10 seconds with a towel. A warm-air dryer cannot dry your hands within 10 seconds. On average, it takes 50 seconds to dry 90 per cent of your hands.

Jet-air dryers have come on the market in the last few years. They blast air at enormous speed. If you can apply some mechanical friction, and rub your hands together, you can dry 90 per cent of your hands within 10 seconds. If the jet-air dryer has a good intake filter, it will stop the bacteria that are already floating in the bathroom air from getting sucked in and blown around. Warm-air dryers were not installed to improve hygiene, but to cut costs.